Downstream flooding If large amounts of rain fall over an extended period of time over a large region, downstream floods also called regional floods may occur. Prolonged exposure to temperatures outside tolerance ranges will cause death. Vegetation intercepts precipitation and slows the movement of water into river channels.
The time delay between maximum rainfall amount and peak discharge is the lag time. Base flow - The baseflow of the river represents the normal day to day discharge of the river and is the consequence of groundwater seeping into the river channel.
Louis, Missouri during the time period of the flood. Storm hydrographs allow us to investigate the relationship between a rainfall event and discharge. The overall discharge from the drainage basin depends on the relationship between percipitation, evpotranspiration and storage factors and can be summarised as follows: They are upstream floods with very little lag time lag times may be only a few hours.
The shape of the drainage basin also affects runoff and discharge. If the drainage basin is already saturated then surface runoff increases due to the reduction in infiltration.
Summary In this Spreadsheet Across the Curriculum Activity, students will learn to calculate river discharge from given field data in Excel. Sedimentation Resident Fish and Aquatic Life, Salmonid Fish Spawning and Rearing Sediment may clog and damage fish gills, suffocate eggs and aquatic insect larvae on the bottom, and fill in spaces in the gravel where fish lay eggs.
The receding limb shows the fall in discharge back to the base level. Note that for the Mississippi River and other large rivers in Louisiana, the current stage and flood stage are published on a daily basis in the weather section of the Times-Picayune newspaper.
As an operational definition, an acid is a substance that will decrease pH when added to pure water. These are plotted on a graph called a hydrograph, which shows the stage or discharge of the river, as measured at the gaging station, versus time.
As pH levels move away from this range up or down it can stress animal systems and reduce hatching and survival rates. As the concentrations of heavy metals increase, their toxicity also increases. Alkaline lakes, also known as soda lakes, generally have a pH level between 9 and The sudden drops seen in discharge around July 15 and July 20 corresponded to breaks in the levee system upstream from St.
The higher the number, the more basic it is. The acidity of the surrounding environment can also affect the pH of water. Because they do not have access to treated water in many of the areas, people use the river for washing and bathing.
Explain why discharge is not linearly related to stage in most streams. The lag time is the delay between the maximum rainfall amount and the peak discharge.
Encourage students to utilize Excel as an aid in managing and manipulating future data needs. Infiltration Infiltration is controlled by how readily the water can seep into the soil, be absorbed by the soil, and work its way down to the water table.
Heavy metals are more toxic at lower pH levels. Over the short term a flood or storm hydrograph figure 1.
Storm Hydrographs Hydrographs can be used to illustrate discharge. Overtopping of levees If high discharge in the river leads to a river stage that is higher than any point on a levee, the water will overtop the levee and start to flow onto the floodplain.
Rubbish is blown by the wind into the river or it is washed down storm-water drains and into the rivers. This is often due to a high salt content though not every salt lake has a high pH. Key Terms Hydrograph — a graph that shows river discharge and rainfall over time. They absorb and store large quantities of water after it has rained, and then slowly feed the ground water and streams during drier times.
Lower pH levels increase the risk of mobilized toxic metals that can be absorbed, even by humans, and levels above 8. These layers are separated by clines, known as thermoclines temperature divides or chemoclines chemistry gradients.
Basins that have many streams high drainage density drain more quickly so have a shorter lag time. An additional economical benefit was the electricity generation by the released water from the dam. Most fish and beneficial aquatic insects "breathe" oxygen dissolved in water.
Wetland destruction Wetlands are the 'sponges' of the river system and are found at intervals along the entire length of the river. Wastewater Effluent Discharge: Effects and Treatment Processes Akpor O.
B.+ it has ecological impacts and also affect public health. The principal forms of nitrogen are organic nitrogen, ammonium (NH4+ or NH3), critical factors contributing to numerous waterborne outbreaks.
Diseases caused by bacteria, viruses and. A positive impact of increased corn acreage over this period on river discharge is identified.
Keywords: Biofuels, Stream Flow, and Discharge affecting productivity and contributing to surface also noted that the major factors affecting the amount of chemicals reaching water bodies from.
The Hydrological Cycle (Factors affecting river regime (Drainage basin: The Hydrological Cycle Human factors affecting drainage basin. Evaporation - increased. Runoff - increased. Shows variation in a river's discharge at a specific point.
Rising limb = increase in discharge. Factors that can affect the movement of contaminants from source areas to wells are: The chemical nature of the contaminant; The physical properties of the soil and aquifer material; The amount and timing of recharge; and The direction and velocity of groundwater movement.
Feb 07, · Factors affecting hydrograph shape February 7, by sisgeo There are multiple factors affecting the discharge and discharge rate of a river, particularly after a high amount of rainfall. View mindmap.
Factors affecting river discharge Human Factors Building Urban areas around the river. Impermeable materials used as building and infrastructure materials Concrete.
Tarmac. Infiltration Impermeable materials used as building and infrastructure materials Concrete.
Tarmac.Human factors affecting river discharge